Chronology[ edit ] There is debate over the start date of the Bosnian War. On April 5, when a huge crowd approached a barricade, a demonstrator was killed by Serb forces. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
In all of those concepts, Bosnia-Herzegovina was seen as an integral part of united Croatia. There were, in principle, two concepts of united Croatia: All existed differences between the Croats and the Bosnian-Herzegovinian Muslims were considered as artificial and created by the Yugoslav authorities.
In general, for the Croat politicians, academicians, and public workers, the Drina River was a demarcation line between the civilization and the barbarism, or between Europe and the Orient. The Serbs were considered as the proponents of the Byzantine-Ottoman Oriental anti-European culture, while the Croats and Slovenes were understood as the last bulwark of the European civilization in front of the Oriental primitivism.
In some conceptions of the extraterritorial enlargement of Croatia, the territory of Serbia had to be restricted to the area around Belgrade only. Therefore, Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina have to be united into a single national state of the ethnic Croats.
A grave-stone full of fascist Ustasha symbols in a cemetery of the Croatian town of Samobor It is known and proved that Tudjman had a set of secret negotiations with Miloshevic to divide Bosnia-Herzegovina between Serbia and Croatia.
Therefore, it was agreed in March a creation of the Croat-Muslim federation in Bosnia-Herzegovina that was advocated by Washington the Washington Framework Agreement.
In practice, even today, the Croat controlled part of Bosnia-Herzegovina is not under a virtual administration by the central authorities of Bosnia-Herzegovina in Sarajevo similar to the case of the Republic of Srpska.
The Ustashi organizations and parties advocated a common Croat-Muslim combat against the Serbs in Bosnia-Herzegovina but only after the creation of ethnically pure Croat Herzeg-Bosnia.
In principle, they opposed the Dayton Accords as this agreement gave to Serbia a real possibility to cross the Drina River. The Anti-Serbism became, however, the main cornerstone of making the Croat national unity and gathering all Croats around a common focus of ethnopolitical coherence.
Hence, the national education system has to be rearranged on this way to teach the nation who, and why, is the national enemy and how the nation has to struggle against the enemy. In order to achieve this goal, usually, three methods were used: Demolition of the Serb houses.
Public announcing the Serb names as wanted war criminals. Physical attacking, or even killing, the Serb refugees. Nevertheless, either the HDZ or other right-wing Croat parties never recognized the mass exodus of Krajina Serbs from Croatia in August as the ethnic cleansing as for them it was rather a free choice of the homeland as it was officially stated by the President Franjo Tudjman.
Official Croatia as well never recognized the existence of the concentration camps for the Serbs in the s on the territory of Croatia like it was in the Pakrac poljana, around Gospic, and in Sisak. That was a legal mechanism used in order not to create real conditions for the Serb refugees to return back.
Against the Western liberalism for conservative order The Croat ultranational parties and other organizations expressed a visible form of anomaly in their ideological and programmatic concepts as on the one hand promoted an idea of protection of the West European culture and civilization but at the same time, on the other hand, expressed a great extent of suspicion and even hostility towards the Western liberalism.
A destructive nature of the Western liberalism was primarily seen in regard to the liberal approach toward the family question as the ultranationalists reject the liberal emphasis on individual freedom of choice and rights and on personal benefits from such choice.
What they support instead of liberal ideology of personal free choice is an ideology which is advocating the promotion of the welfare of the nation and realization of the national state policy. As for the Croat ultranationalists the main problem and obstacle for the prosperity of Croatia and Croats were the Serbs, their requirement for demographic renewal of the Croat nation was politically pointed against the Serbs.
For the Croat ultraright parties, a family structure has to be framed within the conservative-patriarchal order as the best way to biologically increase the population of the ethnic Croats as, for instance, Franjo Tudjman stated in one of his speeches in the Parliament.
Such clear calling for national duties instead of the individual right of free choice was a direct rejection of the West European liberal political foundation of the society and state. For that reason, the members of HDZ supported an idea and practice of significant state ownership that was also in odd to the Western liberalism.
The citizenship law was also changed in the favor of the ethnic Croat diaspora as Croatia was proclaimed as the motherland of all ethnic Croats. Therefore, the regional parties of Istria, the Serb populated Krajina and Dalmatia suffered mostly from such policy of a brutal centralization of Croatia.
In general, the Croat ultranationalists were against the basic values of the Western liberalism but also and against many segments of the Western culture especially of the U.
The West became accused and for the attempts to undermine the independence of Croatia and even to recreate some form of the Yugoslav or Balkan confederation with the Serbs and Serbia.
Conclusion The internal and external destruction of the former Yugoslavia in the s was celebrated in its 20th years of anniversary. However, this historical event still needs a satisfactory research approach in regard to the true geopolitical reasons and political-military course of the destruction of this South Slavic and Balkan state.
During the last quarter of a century, the Western global mainstream media and academia unanimously accused Serbia and the Serbs for the national chauvinism as the main cause of the bloody wars on the territory of ex-Yugoslavia in the s.
This article is an attempt to contribute to the full-scale of understanding of the process of destruction of the former Yugoslavia taking into the account the role of the Croats and Croatia. However, the main causer of the destruction of ex-Yugoslavia was not Slobodan Milosevic but rather Dr.
Franjo Tudjman in Croatia who introduced tougher dictatorship than Miloshevic in Serbia with the fundamental political goal to establish ethnically pure a Greater Croatia within the ethnohistorical borders of the Croat nation as proclaimed by the ultranationalist Croat ideologists in the 19th and the 20th century.
His efforts in the process of state-building of Croatia in the s were aimed to nationalize the state in which the political and cultural dominant position of the ethnic Croats has been reserved.
In essence, after the elections in Croatia, a new political leadership adopted a state-building form and methods which have been crucially against the process of real democratization of political life and society in this ex-Yugoslav republic.
Their ideology and implementation strategy were derived from the 19th and 20th-century Croat ultranationalism and legitimized by appropriating the symbols and iconography of the most extremist and even Nazi-Fascist the Ustashi Croat nationalistic movements.Bosnia and Herzegovina - History Background.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosna i Hercegovina, designated here as BiH), once a culturally rich jewel of the Balkan republics in the former Yugoslavia, suffered dramatically during the s from a tragic civil war involving its three main ethnic groups—Serbs, Bosnian Muslims ("Bosniacs"), and Croats.
1) Aggression and not the civil war (involvement of serbia and croatia in aggression on Bosnia) 2) Bosniaks and serbs are not the same and Bosniaks are not . Following Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of independence (which gained international recognition), the Bosnian Serbs, led by Radovan Karadžić and supported by the Serbian government of Slobodan Milošević and the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), mobilised their forces inside Bosnia and Herzegovina in order to secure ethnic Serb territory, then war soon spread across the country, Location: Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between and Following a number of violent incidents in early , the war is commonly viewed as having started on 6 April The war ended on 14 December Location: Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bosnian conflict: The Bosnian conflict was an ethnically rooted war in Bosnia and Herzegovina that took place from to After years of bitter fighting between Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims), Serbs, and Croats as well as the Yugoslav army, a NATO-imposed final cease-fire was negotiated at Dayton, Ohio, U.S., in When Bosnia and Herzegovina’s independence was recognized by the United States and the EC on April 7, Bosnian Serb paramilitary forces immediately began firing on Sarajevo, and the artillery bombardment of the city by Bosnian Serb units of the Yugoslav army began soon thereafter.
During April many of the towns in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina with large Bosniak populations, such as Zvornik, Foča, and .